Howell Ancestry

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There is no direct evidence for Samuel's place of birth. The earliest record of Samuel was his trial in 1789 at Winchester, Co Hampshire. No indication was given as to whether he was a native of the area of not. Since at that time most people still remained in the area they were born, it is possible Samuel was a native of the Winchester area. An examimation of available Co Hampshire parish records does not reveal any possible connections - in fact Howell appears to be a very rare surname in the county, suggesting in fact that he may have been born elsewhere. With no other evidence of his origins, finding his birth (and hence parentage) is at this stage impossible. In 1786 a Samuel Howell accused of stealing two pieces of iron from John Cricket of Lambeth, Co Surrey.[558] Surrey borders Co Hampshire to the east. Was this the same Samuel who was convicted of theft a few years later in Co Hampshire and then transported to Australia?
   

Medieval Pins
Scarborough, Second Fleet
Artist Unknown
1. Samuel Howell,[425] born 1765[4,432]/1770[15], Co Hampshire, England.[250] Died 1835, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[572] & burial registered 12/5/1835, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (70yo),[4,250,572] Rev. William Cowper, Rector.[572] Constable, 1800.[432] Blacksmith, 1814, 1822, 1825, 1828, 1835.[425,431,432,572] Convicted 5/3/1789,[15,445] at the Hampshire County Assizes,[15,431,445] Winchester,[15,430,445] Co Hampshire, England, and sentenced to death, along with Joseph England, Samuel Howell and Mary Jones for a burglary.[445] Francis Buller and William Henry Ashhurst appealed for mercy on the judgements and Joseph England was recommend a free pardon whilst Samuel Howell and Mary Jones were recommended for transportation for life,[445] the recommend reduced sentences for Samuel & Mary were subsequently accepted.[15,431] At the time of his conviction Samuel was 19yo.[15]
"Samuel Howell who with Mary Jones his accomplice had stolen clothes and other items from Elizabeth Gearle at Wallop and received transportation for life as his reward. Mary Jones, who was originally on the indent of the Neptune, was fortunately for her transferred to the Mary Ann which did not leave England until 1791 and which only nine out of 150 female convicts died."[434] {Elizabeth Gearle, wife of John, resided Nether Wallop, Co Hampshire}
Transported to Australia on the "Scarborough", part of the ill-fated Second Fleet (73 of the ship’s prisoners had died en route),[15,430,522] departing Portsmouth, England, 12/1789[431] & arriving 28/6/1790, Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, Australia.[15,430,431] In July 1791 William Watkins appeared in court, charged with burgling the hut of Samuel Howell, a convict.[435] In 1791 was noted for his "diligence and strict attention to his duty as a principal in the night watch."[425] On 19/9/1798 Samuel was listed as surety on the license granted to Henry Kable to sell spirituous liquors.[526] Received a conditional pardon from Governor Hunter,[430] dated 4/6/1800.[426,522] On 31/12/1809 Samuel published a notice that he was intending to leave the colony on the "Trial".[554] Just over a month later, on 12/2/1810, he published a second notice that he was intending to leave the colony on the brig "Experiment".[425,555] {Why he elected not to leave on the 'Trial" is unknown. His decision not to depart in 1810 likely co-incides with the death Ann Germaine's then partner and the return into Samuel's custody of at least some of his children with Ann - when they parted in 1805 Ann took the children with her  (see below)}
"Claims or Demands upon the following persons are to be forthwith presented to themselves for Payment; they being about to depart the Colony : In the Trial, Samuel Howel.(Gazette 31/12/1809)"[554]
"Claims or Demands. The following Persons being about to depart the Colony, all Claims or Demands on any of the said Persons are respectively requested to be presented to themselves for Payment; Viz. In the Brig Experiment, Samuel Howell.(Gazette 12/2/1810)"[555]
In the 1814 muster Samuel (living seperate from his wife, Ann Germaine) was listed as "off stores", that is he was purchasing (or growing) his own victuals & not relying on Government handouts.[432] On 23/1/1815 was a witness, along with Sarah Griffiths, at the marriage of George Marshall & Mary McCarroll, at St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[430] Samuel signed his name (albiet poorly), indicating that he was literate at the time.[430] The same year he was a witness at the marriage of his daughter, Maria.[425] On 10/9/1818 Samuel was on the of persons to receive grants of land in that year.[527] In 1822 was employed by Simon Lord.[425,430,432] On 2/8/1826 Samuel appeared as the victim of theft in a case at the Sydney Quarter Sessions:
"A Petty Jury having been sworn, John Baker was placed at the bar, charged with having stolen a chest, containing a quantity of wearing apparel and other articles, the property of Samuel Howell, on the 1st of July last.- Not Guilty.(Gazette 9/8/1826)"[443]
"The Court of Quarter Sessions commenced on Monday last, pursuant to public notice, before William Carter, Esq. Chairman, and a Bench of Magistrates. John Baker, of Sydney, free labourer, was indicted for stealing a chest, containing wearing apparel, &c. from Samuel Howell, of the same place, Publican, on the 1st of July last. Not Guilty.(Monitor 18/8/1826)"[521]
{At the time Samuel was living with & working for his son-in-law, William Bruce, who was the publican. Samuel was a blacksmith} In 1828 was employed by his son-in-law, William Bruce, at Pitt Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[425,432]
Married Ann Germaine (no record of marriage, presumably a defacto relationship).[425,430,432] Separated 1805.[425] Ann born c.1770,[4,15] died 2/3/1823, Windsor, NSW, Australia,[4,250] & buried 3/3/1823, Left section, Row 20, Plot 12,[619] St Matthew's Church of England, Windsor, NSW, Australia (Ann Howell, 53yo).[4,619] Ann was convicted 26/7/1790, Norwich City Assizes, Co Norfolk, England,[15,430] & sentenced to transportation for 7 years, then 20yo.[15] Transported to Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, Australia on the "Mary Ann", arriving 9/7/1791.[15,425,430,432] At the time of her death Ann had recieved her freedom by the expiration of her sentence.[250] Mary Jones who was tried at Winchester as Samuel Howell’s co-accused also arrived on the 'Mary Ann'.[425] Samuel & Ann (Germaine) were listed consecutively in the 1800 Muster (suggesting but not proving they were living together).[425] By March 1805 Samuel was advertising that he was no longer liable to Ann's debts (effectively an announcement of a defacto divorce):
"Notice: Samuel Howell gives this public notice that no person shall credit his wife on his Account as he will not be responsible for any debt she may contract. Sydney, March 10 1805.(Gazette 24/3/1805)"[442]
A similar notice was published the following month: "Notice: Samuel Howell gives this public notice that no person shall credit his wife on his Account as he will not be responsible for any debt she may contract.(Sydney Gazette 14/4/1805)"[432,442]
Ann moved to Windsor after she parted with Samuel in 1805.[425] where she had at least two known partners.[425]
Married 2nd Ann Martin (no record of marriage, presumably a defacto relationship).[4,425]
  Ann's identity is unknown. Nor is anything nown about her fate after the birth of James in 1809. According to [250] at the time she was with Samuel she was a convict (whether former or current not specified). Only one Ann Martin had arrived in Sydney as a convict prior to 1809: Ann Martin was convicted 1787, Southwark, Co Surrey, England, sentenced to transportation, then 17yo (born c.1770) and transported to Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, Australia on the "Lady Penrhyn", part of the First Fleet, arriving 1788.[15] Ann & her co-accused, Amelia Levy, were tried at the Quarter Sessions of St Margaret's Hill, Co Surrey on 9/1/1787: "Ann Martin and Amelia Levy committed the 13th day of December 1786 by William Mason Esq. charged on the oath of John Tenant, Anthony Shearcroft, and Ann Brown, (an accomplice) with having feloniously taken and stolen, in the parish of Rotherhithe, some silk handkerchiefs the property of the said John Tenant. The sentence was transportation for seven years."[425]
Another possibility is that Ann was a widow or former Martin spouse. BMD records are incomplete in the early decades, however in 1792 John Martin married Ann Toy and in 1796 a John Martin married Ann Walker.[4] Ann Martin nee Toy was missing from the 1806 muster, presumably deceased.[425] Ann Walker arrived on the  "Indispensable" in 1796, convicted Co Middlesex in 1794 & sentenced to 7 years transportation, then 37yo (born c.1757).[15] She would have been too old to have had James (below) in 1809 & was probably the Ann Martin who died 1820, Parramatta, aged 81.[4] Ann of the "Indispensable" resided with her husband in Parramatta in the 1806 muster, confirming that is her death.[425] The 1806 muster also lists an Ann Martin, wife of J. Martin, arrived 1802 on the "Hercules".[425] There were no Martin's on that ship, nor a listed marriage between 1802-1806, indicating this Ann either arrived free or was a defacto spouse. Without a marriage it is probably impossible to identify who this Ann was.
  "Caution - Whereas Ann the Wife of John Martin (heretofore residing on Cornwallis Farm, but since on a part of the Estate of Thos. Hobby, Esq. at Hawkesbury) hath eloped from her said husband, and is now co-habiting with a man at or near Bardo-narrang. This is therefore, as well as to inform as to caution all and every, person or persons, that I the undersigned John Martin will not be answerable or accountable for any Debt or Debts the said Ann may contract in any shape or under any colour or pretence whatever; And this Notice is made public to prevent any person from being imposed upon by her. John Martin. Witness M. Robinson.(Sydney Gazette 1/10/1809)"[436] {Bardonarrang was in the Hawkesbury district}  
Whilst this does seem suggestive, I doubt it is the right Ann Martin. Samuel & Ann's son was born August 1809, two months before the above notice was posted. Also the above John Martin was living near Windsor & at this time Samuel Howell was in Sydney, still it is an intriquing lead. I suspect Ann Martin alias Amelia Levy is the most likely candidate for Samuel's partner, however there is no firm evidence.
 
Married Bridget McCarthy (no record of marriage, presumably a defacto relationship).[425,432] {According to [250] Samuel married Maria 'Bridget' Junque, however this appears to be an error. Maria was born c.1794 & emigrated to Australia with her mother in 1804 on the 'Experiment', both arriving 'free'.[425] She was the d/o Anthony Jonquay, per 'Coromandel', and his wife Ann Maria.[425] Maria married at Windsor in 1816 so was living there at the same time as Ann Germaine; presumably how Samuel's daughter, Maria, came to know her sufficiently well to have her as a witness at her marriage} Bridget born c.1789,[425] Co Limerick, Ireland.[15]  {To date all attempts to find Bridget's death have proven fruitless, searching for her death as Bridget Howell, Cassidy, McCarthy, Carthy & other variants of those names. A Bridget McCarthy died 1860, Sydney Asylum, however she appears to have been admitted there before 10/1857[4,568] Bridget Howell was still operating a shop as recently as 12/1857.[449] A Bridget McCarthy married Thomas Rock, 1837,[4] the year her 2nd partner was executed, however Thomas & Bridget were having issue into the mid 1840s, too late to have been Bridget McCarthy-Cassidy-Howell-Gillice who would have been in her 50s by then. Bridget was using the surname Howell in 1857, indicating that as late as that year she had not remarried (she evidently wished not to bear the surname of an executed murderer. Bridget would have been about 60yo then, probably too old to have contemplated marriage, especially since by then she was running her own business and did not need the support of a husband} Bridget was convicted 3/1815, Limerick City, Ireland, & sentenced to transportation for 7 years.[15] Transported to Port Jackson (Sydney), NSW, Australia on the "Alexander",[15,425] arriving 4/4/1816, listed as "Bridget Carty alias Cassidy".[15,425] In 9/1822 Bridget was in gaol at Sydney, awaiting trial (1822 muster).[425] On 18/10/1822 Bridget was tried at Court of Criminal Jurisdiction,[425,439,523] indicted as an accessory after the fact in the murder of Samuel and Esther Bradley as well as with having stolen property in her possession, but was found not guilty:[425,439,524]
 
Limerick County Gaol
Limerick County Gaol
Artist & date unknown (presumably 1800s)
"Murder. Thomas Barry, William Barry, and Dennis Lamb, were next indicted for the wilful murder of Samuel Bradley and Esther Bradley, on the 15th of August last, at Birch Grove, about five miles from town. Each of the prisoners were arraigned alternately at principals. Also were indicted, John Cochrane and Bridget Howell, as accessaries after the fact; and with having stolen property in their possession.
   A. Berry E. a Magistrate for the Territory, deposed, that upon the 1st of September he was one of a party that was going to dine on the North Shore, upon an estate belonging to Mr. Wollstonecraft; and, upon the way thither, Birch Grove was casually visited; that the premises wore the unwelcome aspect of desertion, the house being thrown open, with every appearance of having lately been plundered; trunks and boxes were broken and half open; wearing apparel was strewed in all parts, and one general confusion manifested itself. Mr. Berry said, that the party remained about 20 minutes on the spot, in which interim a bone was found in a putrified state, supposed to have been the limb of some animal. Upon reaching Mr. Wollstonecraft's, that Gentleman became acquainted with the morning adventure of his guests, and immediately dispatched two of his servants to take charge of the dwelling at Birch Grove, and sent information into town, to Chief Constable Dunn, of the suspicions that had become excited.
   William Thorn, assistant to the chief constable, deposed, that he was dispatched to Birch Grove, where he arrived at sunset; he found the two men, sent by Mr. Wollstonecraft, in charge. This witness bore testimony to the disarranged state of the place; and said that a man's arm was shewn to him, which had been discovered by the two men.
   George Milner Slade, Esq. Coroner, deposed to the verity of the Inquisitions taken before him upon the bodies of the deceased; that which was held on Mr. Bradley being on the 2d, and that on Mrs. Bradley on the 5th of September. A verdict of wilful murder was returned against Thos. Barry, on the first Inquest; and a similar verdict was returned, on the second Inquest, against Thomas Barry, William Barry, and Dennis Lamb. Mr. Slade further deposed, that upon the day of the discovery of the horrid transaction (Monday), the Jury accompanied him to Birch Grove. As near as he (Mr. S.) could recollect, the body of Mr. Bradley was about 500 yards distant from the house, over the side of a hill, lying near to a tree, where a space presented itself between two rocks, that was scarcely sufficient to contain the body, from which it had been removed; the countenance was totally disfigured; the limbs had been much lacerated by dogs; and, close to the back part of the shoulder, the shirt appeared to have been singed :-the body was dressed. The prisoner Thomas Barry was, before the Jury, upon inspecting the body of Mr. Bradley. Mrs. Bradley's remains were found interred 5 feet deep in the garden, about 30 yards from the house; the Jury was conducted to the spot by the prisoner Thomas Barry. Without his aid, all search must have been ever fruitless, as no spot had been left unexamined; and even the earth, which covered the body, had been made to so nicely resemble that all around, that none other but an implicated party could have succeeded in the anxious discovery. The skull appeared to have been beat in on the right temple, and the face had been cut across the mouth. The helpless old woman was buried in her clothes. Without the most distant influence, the prisoner Thomas Barry (the Coroner in formed the Court), made a voluntary confession, of which the following is a true copy:
   "That, on Thursday night, between seven and eight, Mr. Bradley came home; that Mrs. Bradley had come home and had spoken together; that this examinant and Barry (the watchman), and Lamb, were in the house; that Bradley was in the house; and, on his turning round, Lamb fired a piece at the back of Bradley, who did not fall, but was immediately dispatched by Lamb, with a blow from the piece; that Mrs. Bradley, who was in an outer room, was knocked down by the watchman Barry, and killed; and that Barry took her pockets from her side, in which were some bodkins, thimbles, keys, &c. That, as soon as Bradley was killed, he was rolled up in a carpet and put out at the back window. - That they, Barry and Lamb, took the corpse of Mrs. Bradley, and conveyed it to the bottom of the garden, also rolled up in a carpet; - that the two men digged the hole for the purpose of holding Mrs. Bradley's body, this examinant remaining in the house; that he followed them to the spot and covered up the body, and in the mean time the two men went to the house and took away the body of Mr. Bradley; that he heard a conversation between the men respecting the putting of Bradley's body into the water, but he did not see them or the body any more that night; that he staid in the house all night, and the next rooming he scraped the handle of the axe, which was bloody. -Saith, that the next day they met at the slaughter-house, when Barry gave Lamb £6 in dollars, out of £12 or £13 in money which they had taken out of the boxes of the deceased, but they had not rifled the boxes in his presence; they must have turned the boxes over whilst he was employed in covering the corpse of Mrs Bradley, and saith he received £2 in dollars for himself; and that the reason Lamb had £6, was because Barry was to have the personal effects, which they had taken from the house; and Lamb was to have a bundle of Mrs. Bradley's, then in Lamb's possession; that the rest of the property was to be divided, when taken away and sold, between examinant and Barry (the watchman), pigs, boxes, &c. -Saith, that amongst the money there was a crooked half guinea, which Barry had retained. Saith, that Cochrane did not know any thing improper was going forward, but merely went, at the instance of examinant, to fetch some things, which examinant stated to be his property, and under a promise that he should be satisfied; that it was at first intended to take the things to the slaughter-house; but this was given up from a suggestion of Cochrane's that there was meat taking in there; and therefore Cochrane offered to take the things to his apartments, at Mrs. Howells; that Bridget Howell did not know of any thing bad in this transaction; that Barry (the watchman) was privy to Cochrane's being employed; and that Cochrane, when he went to Birch Grove, and looked in, must have seen the disorder and confusion that were there, but no remark was made about it; that Cochrane asked examinant if he would not take any more things, as it was a pity to leave them be hind, but examinant declined taking any more then. Saith, that Lamb was the man that, about 4 months since; ill-used Mrs. Bradley at Lane Cove; when Lamb, and another man, with their faces blacked, went to Mr. Bradley's house at that time; that Barry informed him thereof. -Saith, that the plan of robbing the house, and getting the property, was concerted between Barry and Lamb, to which examinant was privy, about two months since; and that, on the night the murder was committed, and after the piece had been discharged, Barry exclaimed, that he would not be hung, but would put the people out of the way to prevent any discovery. -Saith, he was not aware of or privy to the murder; that it was suddenly done by Lamb, who killed Mr. Bradley; and by Barry, who killed Mrs. Bradley."
Mr Dunn, Chief Constable, deposed, that he reached Birch Grove about 8 o'clock on the evening of the 1st of September, and found the dwelling ransacked as already described. Upon the following morning, at some distance from the house, his attention was attracted by a tree that had but recently been fell, and from which direction an offensive scent issued; he moved some of the boughs, and discovered the body of Mr. Bradley, which had been much torn by dogs; the vacuum, in which it had been thus deposited, was about 18 inches in depth; and the shirt, between the loins and the shoulder, had the appearance of being burnt. As to Mrs. Bradley, Mr. Dunn confirmed the Coroner in that part of his testimony; saying, that the skull had been beat in, the jaw bone broke, and the lip and tongue cut, apparently with the edge of an axe. In examining the house, a broken gun, which had been discharged, was found upon the loft, the barrel of which rather curved, doubtless from the violence of the blow which had caused its present useless state; and in the skilling, up the chimney, an axe was found, which had a remarkable notch or gap in the edge; this was compared with the marks on the tree that covered Mr. Bradley; and the result of which was, that there could be no doubt entertained but that this instrument was used in felling the tree, which was vainly hoped would effectually secrete, from "mortal ken," the remains of a barbarously murdered fellow creature : the elve of the axe had been newly scraped. Mr. Dunn added, that about a fortnight previous to the discovery of the murders, the prisoner Thomas Barry had been apprehended in Sydney for being drunken and riotous; he was taken before the Magistrate of Police, and proving to be an assigned government servant to Mr. Eagar, at large without leave, he was ordered into barracks. Upon that occasion he was searched, and two keys, a silver bodkin, and silver thimble, were found upon his person; and that, in giving an account for the possession of those articles, he then said, that he had a chest of drawers from Mr. Bradley, in part payment of wages, to which the keys belonged; and that the other articles he found on the race-course; declaring also, that he had been in Mr. Bradley's employment for 8 months past. His face, at this time, displayed several scratches, and marks of blood! The prisoner William Barry was taken into custody on Monday, and Dennis Lamb on the Wednesday following.
   Mr. William Hodges, publican in Pitt-street, deposed, that he was upon intimate terms with the deceased Bradley, and that the prisoner Thomas Barry had been in Mr. Bradley's service, up to the time of his disappearance, for a period of nine months, and that he was the only servant. This witness stated, that the last time he saw the deceased, was about a fortnight before the horrid discoverv. He diligently examined the house to find out marks of violence, and only could perceive one apparent drop of blood.
Police Office, George Street, Sydney, 1836
Police Office, George Street, Sydney, 1836
Lithograph - Robert Russell
   Mrs. Margaret Hodges deposed, that she accompanied Mrs. Bradley from town, in a boat with some others, on the 15th August. On reaching Birch Grove the prisoner Thomas Barry came to the landing-place, and Mrs. B. enquiring after her husband, was told that he had gone to Sydney. The poor woman seemed rather alarmed, and asked if any one had been there, to which she was answered by Thomas Barry in the negative; who told his hapless mistress that Mr. Bradley had disposed of the pigs, several of which were on the farm, to some person on board of ship. Mrs. Hodges remained till sunset with her little party, and then bid farewell for the last time to her poor friend, who was looking every moment for the anxious return of her then murdered husband! They had only been at Birch Grove about a week, having for a length of time before resided at Lane Cove. Mrs, Hodges proceeded to state, that next morning, the prisoner Thomas Barry came to her house for some tea and sugar for his master, which was delivered. He told the witness that his master and mistress were in good health, and that Mr. B. returned about half an hour after her departure. Various articles of property were now shewn io the witness; among others, two sofa curtains she identified as having formed part of the property belonging to the deceased, from the circumstance of herself purchasing those very articles for Mrs. Bradley; the two keys, silver bodkin, and thimble, taken from the prisoner Thomas Barry, a fortnight before the discovery, she had no doubt belonged to Mrs. Bradley; and Mrs. Hodges remembered a half guinea to be in the possession of Mrs. Bradley, of which she was very fond :-a crooked half-guinea was presented to her, to which she could not positively swear, but said it much resembled the one she had seen with Mrs Bradley.
   Michael Burn, publican in Pitt-street, deposed, that a watch, which was put into his hands for the purpose of investigation, had been once in his possession, and it then had a chain; he received it from the prisoner Thomas Barry, on the 17th of August, in security for a liquor debt, which he had contracted without the means of paying. In two days after, the same prisoner called for, and obtained the watch; which, however, had been sufficiently marked by the witness as to enable him safely to swear, that that before the Court was the same. A dirty-looking chain was also shewn to him, which he recollected to have been attached to the watch.
   John-Wright, a resident in Philip-street, deposed, that on the night of Saturday, the 17th of August, the prisoner Thomas Barry came to his house, which he was in the habit of frequenting with his late master, between 11 and 12 o'clock, having scratches on his face, and several marks of blood about him. He told the witness that he had been on the rocks, and lost £5.
   William Senior deposed, that his landlord (one Fogarty) had informed him of having purchased a pig from the prisoner Thomas Barry, who slept at his house on the 18th of August; that he saw the pig, which remained at Fogarty's till taken away by the Police. This witness, in his testimony, said that he was present in a conversation that occurred between the prisoners Cochrane and Thomar Barry: the latter asked the former to take care of some property for him, to which Cochrane assented; an inventory of the articles was drawn out by Cochrane, in the presence of the prisoner Bridget Howell, in whose house this circumstance transpired; Cochrane acknowledged to the receipt of the goods contained in the inventory, to which the witness affixed his signature at the request of the prisoner, Cochrane and Thomas Barry. Upon the conclusion of this business, the parties went to a public house, and partook of some spirits.
   Joseph Kearns, a constable, deposed, that he took the prisoner Thomas Barry into custody on suspicion of the present serious charge; he was then attached to a road-party on the South-head road. On his way to town he was very anxious to learn the reason for his apprehension, and wished much to change his dress; and upon being searched at the Police Office, the chain, sworn to by Mr. Burn, together with several et-cęteras, were found upon him.
   William Foster, district constable at Lane Cove, deposed, that Mr. and Mrs. Bradley resided at Lane Cove for a length of time, and that the prisoner Thomas Barry was their servant; but that latterly they had removed to Birch Grove. The watch, sworn to by Michael Burn as having been in the possession of Thomas Barry, he positively identified to belong to Mr. Bradley.
Sydney Gaol (centre building), George St, 1825
Sydney Gaol (centre), George Street, 1825
Lithograph - Augustus Earle
   Henry Robenson, watchmaker, deposed, that the above watch had been repaired by him, for Mr. Bradley, together with another; the numbers and makers' name of which he gave to the Court; and they exactly corresponded with those before the Court.
   James Oatley, watchmaker, deposed, that the prisoner Thomas Barry, brought to him a watch to be cleaned on the 31st of August; one of those presented to him was the watch, and which had been handed over by him to the Police on the 2d of September.
   John Matthews, a constable, deposed, that, he apprehended the prisoner William Barry, at the slaughter-house, to which he belonged as a watchman, on the 2d of September; it was in the middle of the day; he searched him, and found on his person a small net bag; containing dollars and other money, together with the crooked half-guinea before the Court. Upon being required to account for the obtainment of this remarkable piece, in the presence of the Superintendent of the slaughter-house, he first said, that he had not seen Thomas Barry for a fortnight before, and that he had the half-guinea for two years; secondly; that he had seen him (Thomas Barry) the day before, at mass, and that the piece had been in his possession about three months, for which he had given two dollars and sixpence in the market; and thirdly, that the prisoner Thomas Barry actually gave him the half-guinea in payment for a pair of shoes, he giving him, at the time, a dollar in change. Relative to the prisoner Cochrane, this witness further deposed, that he conversed with him, on the way to the Inquest; Cochrane told him that there was no one in the boat but himself and Thomas Barry; and that the latter wished to land the things at the slaughter-house wharf, but which was by himself (Cochrane) declared impracticable. Cochrane told Matthews that he had seen the two Barry's in close conversation before and after the property was brought away from Birch Grove, and that they spoke in Irish. Instead of landing the articles in Cockle-bay, Cochrane said that he proposed to Thomas Barry to bring them to the King's Wharf, to which however Barry was averse. Mr. William Hill, Superintendent of the Slaughter-house, confirmed the previous part of the last witness's testimony.
   George Barnett, a carter, deposed, that the prisoner Cochrane engaged him to remove a load of goods from Mannix's wharf in Cockle-bay, on the 24th of August; he was conducted to the place by the prisoner Cochrane, where he saw the prisoner Thomas Barry standing by the goods on the wharf. They loaded the cart, and just as he was about to leave the spot, his eye caught the person of the prisoner William Barry, who had also tendered his assistance to load the cart. This witness said, that Cochrane directed the prisoner Wm. Barry to remain with the boat and mind the pigs; while they, the carter and Cochrane, went on with the cart. Thos. Barry had then left them. The cart was taken to the house of the prisoner Bridget Howell, where the property was deposited; and the articles before the Court composed a part.
   James Day, deposed, that he belonged to that part of the town gang of which the prisoner Cochrane had been overseer; that he was present when some goods were brought to the house, of the prisoner Bridget Howell, at which Cochrane lodged; that he assisted to unload the cart of its burden, the whole of which waa lodged in Cochrane's room; and that the prisoners Thomas Barry and Cochrane were both present at the arrival of the cart. He enumerated several of the articles, and those in Court he identified to be the same. After the above prisoners had left the house some short time, the prisoner Bridget Howell directed him (the witness) to go down towards the slaughter-house, and 'lend a hand to drive some pigs.' Accordingly he went, and five pigs were found in a boat, of which no one seemed to be in charge; and the animals were then driven to the house of Bridget Howell, by Thomas Barry, Cochrane, and the witness.
   Bernard Fitzpatrick, a constable, deposed, that in the morning after the discovery of the dire transaction, the prisoner Cochrane encountered him in Cumberland-street; he enquired of the witness whether it was true that Thomas Barry was accused of the murders of Mr. and Mrs. Bradley; the witness replied in the affirmative; when Cochrane immediately said, 'if that be the case, he (Thomas Barry) has led me into a great error.' He then informed the witness that he had a great quantity of the property in his possession, which he had assisted Barry to bring from Birch Grove; and offered to conduct him to his lodging to give up the property. The further testimony of this serviceable police-officer only went to say, that in consequence of the prompt and voluntary information of the prisoner Cochrane, the crime was much quicker brought home to the prisoner Thomas Barry than it was probable it otherwise would have been. The prisoner Bridget Howell told the witness that Cochrane obtained the articles found in her house, and in his room, from the prisoner Thomas Barry.
   In addition to the above it came out, that Cochrane told constable Fitzpatrick that he had even gone as far: as the door of the house at Birch Grove, but that he was prevented from entering owing to Thomas Barry having articles ready on the outside to carry down to the boat. Cochrane said, that Barry informed him, that in consequence of an execution being out against him (Bradley) he had returned to Lane Cove; and that he (Bradley) had given him (Barry) this property; which tale quite satisfied his mind as to the removal of the property.
   Mr. Dunn being recalled, said, that the prisoner Cochrane had used every persuasion with the prisoner Thomas Barry, during the Inquest, to declare the whole truth upon the melancholy occasion. John Butcher, district constable, proved that the articles in Court were taken from the house of the prisoner Bridget Howell. Here the prosecution ended.
   Mary Fidden and William Foster were called by the prisoner Dennis Lamb, whose name had not been mentioned by any of the witnesses during the trial, in support of a good character. Mr. Hill, the Superintendent of the Slaughter-house, and Thomas Wright, called on the part of William Barry, gave him a most excellent character for attention to his duty. On the behalf of Cochrane, Patrick O'Brien, deputy overseer of boats, deposed, that Cochrane, on the morning of the 24th of August, requested him to lend one of the boats to remove some pigs and properly from the North Shore; and that the boat was granted to him, which was returned the same afternoon. James Nicholson Esq. Master Attendant, deposed, that it came within his knowledge that the prisoner Cochrane had applied for the loan of a boat on a Saturday; and that he was referred to the overseer of small crafts. As to character, Mr. Nicholson gave him, Cochrane, a most undeniable one for the last eighteen months. Mr. William Hutchinson, Principal Superintendent of Convicts, confirmed the good character of Cochrane ever since his arrival in the Colony, five or six years since. Mr. Hutchinson also said, that the prisoner Cochrane had exerted himself so much in this affair, that it was principally owing to him that the prisoner Thomas Barry had been induced to make the confession; at least, this was the impression on his mind. Mr. Tress, Master Boat-builder, deposed, that the prisoner Cochrane had applied to him for a boat, somewhere about the 24th of August.
   Other witnesses were, called, and matter presented itself in favor of the prisoners Howell and Cochrane; which, however, our limits will neither allow the insertion of, nor indeed is it necessary to be laid before the Public. Suffice it to say, that after a most patient and laborious trial of several hours, a verdict was returned of Guilty against the prisoner Thomas Barry. The other prisoners were adjudged Not Guilty. His Honor the Judge Advocate immediately proceeded to pass the awful sentence of the law upon the convicted murderer, which decreed him to suffer the penalty of death, on Monday the 14th instant, and his body afterwards to be delivered over to be disected and anatomized.(Gazette 18/10/1822)"[439]
 
On 7/11/1825 Bridget was assaulted by Samuel Harris, Harris was convicted at the Quarter Sessions on the 9th, but was given a light sentence since his assault was deemed to have been provoked (presumably by Bridget):
  "Samuel Harris was indicted for a violent assault on Bridget Howell, on the 7th instant. Guilty. Sentenced, on account of his general good character, and on account of the character of the prosecutor, together with his having received some provocation, to be imprisoned one month.(Gazette 14/11/1825)"[441]  
On 17/4/1828 at the Quarter Sessions "Bridget Howell was indicted for receiving stolen property.(Monitor 19/4/1828)"[438] On 18/4/1828 at the Sydney Quarter Sessions Bridget was convicted of receiving stolen property:[525]
  "Bridget Howell, convicted on Friday of receiving a quantity of bran, the property of Mr Francis Girard, knowing it to be stolen, was placed at the bar for sentence. Counsel for the prisoner moved an arrest of judgment on the ground of an informality appearing on the record of the conviction of the principal felon before the Magistrates; inasmuch as he was therein slated to be an 'assigned servant,' without any further allegation to shew that he came within the description of that class of persons over whom the Justices exercise a summary jurisdiction, pursuant to the Act 4, Geo. IV. c.96, § 1g. The Court overruled the objection; the Chairman being of opinion, first, that the description was sufficiently certain, and secondly, that so much of the allegation in the indictment was not material, it being merely necessary to set forth the fact that the principal was convicted, and such conviction, even though erroneous, was presumptive evidence against the prisoner till set aside. The prisoner's Counsel having expressed his intention to bring the matter before the Supreme Court, the Chairman stated, in order that the proceedings might be regular, he should be obliged to pass the full sentence awarded by law to the prisoner's offence; at the same time; his Worship stated, the Court would recommend that it might be mitigated. The prisoner was then sentenced to be transported for the term of fourteen years.(Gazette 23/4/1828)"[440]  
On 19/4/1828 Bridget received her sentence:
  "Quarter Sessions. Saturday. Bridget Howell, who had been remanded for judgment on the preceding day, was brought up to receive sentence. Fourteen years transportation, as being a receiver of stolen property, knowing the same to have been stolen.(Monitor 23/4/1828)"[437]  
After being sentenced Bridget was sent to the Female Factory.[425] In 1828 Bridget resided at the Parramatta Female factory, aged 39.[425] On 12/6/1828 Bridget's daughter, Mary, who was with her in the Female Factory, was placed in the Sydney School of Industry (orphanage).[560] By 1828 Samuel's relationship with Bridget appears to have been terminated and of Bridget's 4 children with Samuel, one (Mary) was in an orphanage, one (Samuel Jr) was living with Bridget's new partner, one (John) had died and the fourth (William) had vanished, presumably also dead.[425,520] On 22/1/1829 Bridget was sentenced to 7 days solitary confinement at the Parramatta Female Factory for quarrelling and bad language in the sleeping quarters.[425] On 27/2/1829 Bridget was sentenced to 24 hours solitary confinement at the Parramatta Female Factory for disobedience & insolence.[425] On both occasions Bridget was listed as a Third Class prisioner,[425] the harshest class of prisioners at the Female Factory, "kept to hard labour, such as moving earth, breaking stones, etc, and is also deprived of tea and sugar."[444] Bridget was still listed as an inmate in 1830.[425] By 1832 Bridget appears to have either been released from her sentence or at least placed on 'home detention', and was claiming to be the wife of Andrew Gillis.[560] On 27/3/1832 Bridget Howell petitioned to have her daughter, Mary (no age or father listed), returned to her custody.[520]
  “Hunter St Sydney
27 March 1832
Sir,
I humbly beg leave to state that about three years and ten months back my daughter Mary Howell was sent to the female orphanage school at the instances of the Revd W. Cowper on account of my being absent from Sydney for some time.
I therefore respectfully entreat the Companions for an order to get my daughter out of the school as I have sufficient means to educate and support her an do for which Il ever feel grateful and beg to subscribe myself your very humble servant.
Bridget Howell
To The Clerk to the Companions, For managing the church Corporation.”[560]
 
On 8/5/1832, the following responses were recorded against Bridget's petition:
  "I believe the within named party (Bridget Howell - crossed out) Mr and Mrs Gallice to be an industrious Man/Woman and fully able to maintain the child (Wm Wilkes)."[560]  
"I am not aware of any objection to the above mentioned persons- they keep a little shop and appear to be industrious- but as the woman signs herself Howell, it might be well to ascertain whether her name be really Howell or Gallice. The woman says they were married by Father Therry (William Cowper)."[560]
Corner of George & Hunter Streets, c.1849
Corner of George & Hunter Streets, c.1849
Watercolour - Andrew Torning
On 27/8/1832 A. Gillice, claiming to be Mary's parent or guardian, filed a request to Mary to be returned to her custody.[520] Bridget's 2nd partner was Andrew Gillis (also recorded as Gibbs).[560]
In the 1828 Muster Andrew Gillis (alias Gibbs, alias Gillan) was listed as 30yo, a convict, arriving on the "Isabella" in 1822, with a 7 year sentence, Roman Catholic & a dealer residing at Hunter Street, Sydney.[15,560] At the time Bridget's son, Samuel, was living with Gillis.[560] Andrew was convicted 1821, Co Fermenagh, Ireland, then 23yo.[15,560] On 18/4/1822 he was assigned to Elizabeth kelly, alias Tubman, of Hunter Street, Sydney, whilst working on the town gang.[15,560] In 1834 Andrew Gallice received 100 acres at Mangrove Creek, County Northumberland, NSW, Australia.[560] On 16/11/1836 Andrew Gallice was committed on charge of murder committed near Yass on 10/4/1835 and had applied for Bail as he had “considerable property in the interior”, his application was refused.[560] On 13/2/1837 Gallice appeared in court to answer the charge, was found guilty and sentenced to death by hanging, the sentence being executed on the 15/2/1837.[561,562,563]
"Supreme Court - Criminal Side. Monday, February 13.— (Before His Honor the Acting Chief Justice and a Civil Jury). Andrew Gillies stood indicted for the wilful murder of John Kelly, at Yass, on the 10th day of April, 1835.
James Donnagher deposed — I was Chief Constable at Yass in 1835; I recollect John Kelly; he had been in the employ of Gillies (who travelled about the country, selling rum, sugar, tea, &c.) and came to the Yass Bench to give information of his (Gillies) retailing spirits without a license; an information having been filed, Kelly was sworn in as constable, and received arms to go with me to seize the prisoner's teams and the spirits; we went to Russel's, about forty miles from Yass, where we found a cask, a small keg, a tarpaulin, and the teams, in charge of a man named Hoy; seized the casks and teams and took them to the Bench at Yass; a man named Aikin was with us driving a team; I gave Kelly orders to go and serve the summonses on the people whom he mentioned as having purchased spirits of Gillies; he went away, and I never saw him afterwnrds; he wore high-low shoes, a black hat, brown jacket, and nankeen trousers; he was about five feet four inches in height, of a sandy fresh complexion, about thirty-five years of age; there were a good many people at Russell's, but it was not a public-house; after parting from Kelly, I proceeded towards Yass with the two carts and horses, and the driver; Kelly should have been back on the Tuesday-week following, to have given evidence against the prisoner; when the day came, Kelly was still absent, and the Court adjourned; the prisoner attended, as did Hoy; the effects were held in custody for some time, but Kelly not appearing, they were ordered to be delivered to the prisoner; I was not chief constable when Hoy turned approver; I was never sent to where the grave waa found, nor have I since seen any clothes of the deceased; it was suspected that Hoy was interested in the sale of spirts by Gillies, but there was no information against him. By a Juror — One of tho persons for whom Kelly had a summons, named Flinn, appeared at the Court. Edward Burke Roach, sworn — I am chief constable at Yass; I remember receiving a warrant from Mr. O'Brien, I think in September or October last, to attend Hoy in the apprehension of Gillies, for the murder of John Kelly; I proceeded to the station of prisoner at Colah Creek, where I apprehended him; I read the warrant to him; Hoy was outside the door; prisoner did not appear at all agitated, but said 'very well;' I proceeded to the spot where the body was said by Hoy to have been buried; Hoy pointed out the place, and assisted in raising the body; his recollection of the place was not perfectly accurate; the body was lying alongside of a log of wood; he found a shoe and dug up the feet first; when I told the man to dig at the other end he did so and found the skull, which I put in a bag and brought away, leaving the rest of the body; the remains were three feet below the surface; it was about three feet from a running stream of water which, at times, is very wide, extending over the spot on which the body was found, with very deep water-holes; there were some stones on the body which appeared to have been accidentally placed there; I went to the spot again last Friday, and examined the remains, the bones of which were kicked about; I could only find one shoe, or a lace-boot, a piece of brown cloth, apparently a sleeve of a jacket, a button, and three-and-sixpence in money; there is no place for crossing the water near there; it is a clear stream of running water, the chain of holes or ponds are very deep, and in fact, in winter, form a wide river. Cross-examined by Mr. Foster — I did not hear that Gillies was about to give information against Hoy for cattle-stealing. John Hoy, deposed — It will be two years ago in March since I left Mr. Roberts' employ as stock-man, and went to Phil Ward's, at Cunningham's Creek, where I found Gillies' teams — two horses and two carts, and a man and a boy; in the cart were quantities of rum, tea and sugar; prisoner was away looking for cattle, but a day or two afterwards I saw him, and was drinking with him at Ward's; Gillies had two casks in a cart nearly full of rum; prisoner left Ward's and went to Harris's; I went after him on the following day, and saw him selling rum; Kelly was not at Phil Ward's, but he came up while we (prisoner and I) were at Harris's, which was the first time I saw him; Gillies asked what made him stop so long away — words ensued — and Gillies paid him his wages and sent him away; the teams were then sent to a water-hole ten miles from Harris's, and when we has been there for a few days, word came by a man named Dacey, that a constable was coming from Yass to seize the rum, in consequence of information given by Kelly; the rum was then hid in the bush, about a mile from the water-hole; Gillies swore that if he met Kelly he would shoot him; a constable and Kelly came and seized the teams and property belonging to Gillies, and took them to Yass; next morning the prisoner and I started for Yass, where we learned that Kelly had gone to the Murrumbidgee to serve summonses on those persons who had purchased rum of Gillies; the following day, the trial came on, but Kelly was not to be found; Gillies said he would go and endeavour to find Kelly to make it up with him, as, if the case was tried, Mr. O'Brien would not only fino him, but sieze upon all he had, which would ruin him; we started to go to Bogolong, to a Mr. Connor's, and met Kelly, armed with a musket; when he came up he stood aside from Gillies, who got off his horse, and threw himself on his knees, and said to Kelly, he hoped he would not ruin him — that he would sooner give him the amount of money in which he should be fined than give it to Mr. O'Brien, as in the latter case everything he had would be seized; Kelly said, 'If I make it up what will I do with Mr. O'Brien's musket?' The prisoner said, 'the musket is easily planted in the bush, and if you consent not to go to Yass, I will give you £30;' Kelly consented and Gillies paid him £30 in notes; we started on there, and whem we came to the Creek, Kelly and the prisioner went down to drink, while I held the horses; Gilles first drank; then Kelly went, leaving his musket on the bank; whem he (Kelly) stooped to drink, I saw Gillies pick up a stone of about two or three pounds weight, and threw it sideways at Kelly; I know it struck Kelly, because he immediately fell on his mouth; Gillies then rushed down and seizing him by the collar, struck him several blows towards the back of the head with a stone which would weight perhaps seven or eight pounds; I let go the horses and rushed towards him, crying out, 'In the name of God, what the devil are you doing?' he told me if I did not stand back, he would shoot me; I ran back and was about to ride away when he called out, 'Jack, Jack, for God's sake, come back;' I said, 'I dare not while you have that piece,' he then took out the flint and endeavoured to draw the charge, but could not, when he thew the musket into the waterhole; Kelly was then lying dead on the bank; when I went to him, he said, 'Jack, my life is in your hand; he's done - he'll never put any more money in the pocket of government;' he then took the £30 out of the pocket of the deceased; he took the hankerchief off his neck, and that of the deceased and tied his legs and arms, and fastened a stone to the body, and rolled it into the water-hole; I gave no information of the murder until about a year after the occurrence; I thought if I did that it would be endangering my own security in that part of the country.
James Connor, sworn. - In the month of April, 1835, the prisoner called on me to request that I would not appear to a summons which he said was issued for my appearance to give evidence respecting having purchased some rum of him; he told me he would give the informer £30 if he would settle it. In his defence the prisoner strongly protested his innocence of the charge, and stated that the approver Hoy was himself the murderer of the man Kelly.
After His Honor had summed up, which duty was performed in a luminous manner, the Jury retired for a few minutes, and on their return, pronounced a verdict of Guilty. The prisoner was then sentenced to be executed on Wednesday morning, at the usual place.(Australian 17/2/1837)"[561]
"Execution.-Yesterday morning, at the usual hour, the utmost penalty of the law was carried into effect upon Andrew Gillis, convicted of wilful murder on Monday last, under circumstances of considerable aggravation. The culprit was attended in his last moments by the Rev. Mr. McEncroe, to whose instructions he appeared to pay great attention. He asceded the scaffold with stoical firmness, and, every thing being prepared, the fatal signal was given, the drop fell, and Gillis's soul ascended to its Maker, to be judged of deeds committed in the flesh. It is said that he persisted in his innocence to the last.(Gazette 16/2/1837)"[562]
"Execution.-On Wednesday morning, Andrew Gillies, a squatter in Argyle, was executed for the wilful murder of James Kelly. The murder was committed for the purpose of preventing the deceased from giving evidence against the prisoner for selling spirits without a license, and had been committed upwards of a year, when information was given by an approver. The wretched man made no remarks. [We wonder if Gillies sat lately on any case of murder in our precious-precious Jury box].(Herald 20/2/1837)"[563]
In 1832 Bridget & her then partner, Andrew Gillis, were operating a shop in, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[560] Bridget was still running a shop, as Bridget Howell, in 1857,[425] possibly the same shop she had with Gillis in 1832.[560] On 7/12/1857 Bridget was a shopkeeper, listing herself as the wife of Samuel Howell.[425]
  "Central Police Court. Monday. Before Mr. Forbes, Mr. Lyons, and Mr. Egan.
John Lynch, 15 years of age, and William Holland, 14 years, were on Saturday, and today by remand, brought before the Bench by Constable O'Keeffe, who deposed that in consequence of information received he apprehended Lynch for having obtained from a Mrs. Clarke the sum of 20s. by falsely pretending that the piece of paper (a blank form of note for £1, with interest, payable at the Royal Bank of Australia by the Australia Wool Company) produced; he said that Holland gave it to him for the purpose of procuring 20s., which he handed to him; in consequence, apprehended Holland, who admitted having given Lynch the note and receiving the money, and gave up 14s., which he said was part of the money; Holland said that he took it from a man who owed him money; he (witness) made inquiry of thet person referred to, who said that he never owed Holland anything, but gave him the paper in question, telling bim at the same time, that it was not a pound note, but a wool duffer; witness understood the term duffer to mean a thing of no value. Bridget Clarke, wife of Thomas Clarke, of Parramatta-street, labourer, deposed that on Friday Lynch asked her for change of a pound note, at the same time handing her the paper produced; believing it to be a genuine £1 note, gave him 20s. in silver for it. Both prisoners were committed for trial.
The boy Holland was then charged with stealing money from a box in a dwelling. Bridget, the wife of Samuel Howell, residing at the Glebe, shopkeeper, deposed that on last Saturday week, in the afternoon, she had on a shelf in the shop, a box containing a purse and some silver money-how much she could not precisely say, but more than 5s. and less than 20s.; on a shelf near it was also 3s. or 4s in money; she had occasion to leave the shop a minute or two, and on her return the box and money were gone. Bridget Roden deposed that on the afternoon named she saw Holland leaving Mrs. Howell's shop, carrying a box like that missed by Mrs. Howell, another boy was with him, but she could not recognise Lynch as that boy. Holland was on this charge sentenced to be imprisoned with hard labour three months. This boy Holland is one of the most expert and experienced thieves at present known in Sydney, and though so young has been many times in custody, and has thrice been sentenced to three months' imprisonment from this Bench for larceny, and was once, about three years since, sent for trial to the Quarter Sessions, the result of which we do not remember.(SMH 8/12/1857)"[449]

 
Samuel & his family resided 1800, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[432] Resided 1814, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[432] Resided 1822, Sydney, NSW, Australia,[430,432] with children Mary (5yo), Samuel (3yo) & John (1yo).[425] Resided 1825, Sydney, NSW, Australia, with wife & children Mary (8yo) & Samuel (6yo).[425] Samuel resided 1828, with his daughter, Maria, Pitt Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[425,432,440] {Of Samuel's 4 children with Bridget, by 1828 one was in an orphanage (Mary), one was fostered out (Samuel), one had died (John) and the fourth vanished, presumably also dead (William).[425,520]} Samuel resided 1835, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Bridget resided 1832, Hunter Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[560] Bridget resided 1857, Glebe, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[449]

Children of Samuel Howell & Ann Germaine:
* i.
 
Henry Howell, born c.1794,[4,250] Port Jackson, NSW, Australia.[250]
* ii.

Maria Howell, born c.1796, Port Jackson, NSW, Australia.[250,432]
* iii.

Hannah Howell,[4,235,236] born 1795[4,66]/1797[234]/1800[235]/1803,[425] Sydney, NSW, Australia.[66]
iv.

son, born before 1806.[432,433] Living his mother, Ann Germaine, 1806.[432,433] {Unknown if a son of Samuel or was a son of Ann Germaine to a different father - Ann had at least 4 known partners}

Children of Samuel Howell & Ann Martin:
i.
 
James Howell, born about 9/8/1809,[429] baptised 1809, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1809 & buried 1/11/1809, Old Burial Ground, Sydney, NSW, Australia (12wo).[429] Burial recorded St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[429]

Children of Samuel Howell & Bridget McCarthy:
* i.
 
Mary Ann Howell, born 22/10/1818,[560] baptised 1818, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] On 12/6/1828 Mary, listed as both 10yo & 12yo and with parents as both Samuel & Bridget Howell and Samuel & Bridget Cassidy, was admitted to an orphan's school.[520] On 27/3/1832 Bridget Howell petitioned to have Mary (no age or father listed) returned to her custody.[520] On 27/8/1832 A. Gillice, claiming to be Mary's guardian, also filed a request to Mary to be returned to her custody.[520] In 1828 Mary (as Mary Howlett) resided at the Sydney School of Industry (orphanage).[425]
ii.

Samuel Howell, born 22/7/1819,[425] baptised 1819, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (mother 'Biddy').[4] No trace of a marriage, death or issue in NSW.[4] In 1828 Samuel, then 8yo, was a lodger with Andrew Gibbs, Hunter Street, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[425] {This was actually Andrew Gillis, whom Samuel's mother 'married' after parting with Samuel Howell Sr sometime in the late 1820s.[560]}
iii.

John Howell, baptised 1821, St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[4] Died 1823, burial registered St Phillip, Church of England, Sydney, NSW, Australia (inf).[4]
iv.

William Howell, born c.1822, Sydney, NSW, Australia.[250,425] Listed on the 1822 muster (less than 1yo) as s/o Samuel & Bridget.[425] Missing from the 1825 muster, possibly died in infancy.[425] {Note also that whilst Samuel Jr has been located in the 1828 census and in the same year Mary Ann was in an orphan's school, no trace has been found of William

     
County Hall, Winchester, Co Hampshire
County Hall, Winchester, Co Hampshire
Engraving - G. Newton, 1786
New Gaol, Jewry Street, Winchester
New Gaol, Jewry Street, Winchester, 1825
Artist unknown
Cottage, Nether Wallop, Co Hampshire
Cottage, Nether Wallop, Co Hampshire
Photograph © Chris Talbot [Geograph]
  Winchester (archaically known as Winton and Wintonceastre) is a historic cathedral city and former capital city of England. It is the county town of Hampshire, in South East England. Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum. Winchester's major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe. Settlement in the area dates back to pre-Roman times, with an Iron Age enclosure or valley fort, Oram's Arbour, on the western side of the present-day city. After the Roman conquest of Britain the civitas, then named Venta Belgarum or "Market of the Belgae", was of considerable importance. At the beginning of the 3rd century Winchester was given protective stone walls. At around this time the city had covered an area of 144 acres, which made it the 5th largest town in Roman Britain. Like many other Roman towns, Winchester began to decline in the 4th century. The city became the capital of the ancient kingdom of Wessex c.686. The Saxon street plan laid out by Alfred the Great is still evident today: a cross shaped street system which conformed to the standard town planning system of the day – overlaying the pre-existing Roman street plan. The town was part of a series of fortifications along the south coast. Built by Alfred to protect the Kingdom, they were known as 'burhs'. The medieval city walls, built on the old Roman walls, are visible in places. Only one section of the original Roman walls remains. Four main gates were positioned in the north, south, east and west plus the additional Durngate and King's Gate. Winchester remained the capital of Wessex, and then England, until some time after the Norman Conquest when the capital was moved to London. The Domesday Book was compiled in the city early in the reign of William the Conqueror. During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline.[Wikipedia] County Hall. Winchester Castle was founded in 1067. Only the Great Hall exists now. Between 1222–1235, Henry III added the Great Hall. Built of flint with stone dressings, originally it had lower walls and a roof with dormer windows. In 1873 the roof of the Great Hall was completely replaced. An imitation Arthurian Round Table hangs in the Great Hall. The table was originally constructed in the 13th century, and repainted in its present form for Henry VIII; around the edge of the table are the names of King Arthur's knights. The Great Hall served as the city & county courthouse up to 1972.[Wikipedia, Antiquities of England & Wales] Nether Wallop is a village in central Hampshire, England. It is part of The Wallops (Nether, Middle and Over Wallop). The name derives from 'waella' (stream) and 'hop' (valley) or 'the valley of springing water'. The element 'Wallop' is first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as 'Wallope'; 'Wollop inferior', that is, Nether Wallop, is first mentioned c.1270 in the church registers. The village contains many old thatched cottages. The church is partly Anglo-Saxon, and unique fragments of frescoes apparently dating to the late Anglo-Saxon period have been discovered. Nether Wallop is home to a small primary school, The Five Bells Public House and a couple of small shops, a village hall and St Andrews Church. Over Wallop also has a church, St Peters, a post office and a small village shop and the White Hart Public House. Together the two villages and the area referred to as Middle Wallop are known as the Wallops and run in a line roughly North to South following the line of the Wallop Brook which has its source in Over Wallop.[Wikipedia] Hampshire Crime & Punishment. The attitude of society to criminals during the 18th century was harsh and punitive, fuelled by fears concerning the safety any property, however modest. Petty offenders were accommodated in local prisons known as Bridewells, whilst others guilty of serious crimes and sentenced to deatgh or transportation or those sentenced for debt were sent to nearby County gaols. Much of the criminal activity at the time however went unpunished. There was no police force, therefore for a citizen to seek restitution & judgement in the courts was a costly and time-consuming affair. Travel expenses (especially for those living in the rural areas), loss of earnings whilst at court, compensating witnesses, not to mention all the fees for clerks and legal staff (one had to pay to have a case heard in court), all resulting in a heavy cost for someone of moderate means. Criminals often continued their depredations for years or even decades until finally brought to court - or otherwise dealt with. Prisoners were quite often discharged or acquitted due to lack of evidence, the unwillingness of witnesses to attend or "no true bill". In the July 1779 quarter sessions 13 out of the 17 prisoners up for trial were discharged. Despite all the difficulties in obtaining a successful prosecution, there were some that Winchester Assizes sentenced during the last 20 years of the 18th century, either to transportation to be sent to the gallows for execution. Though a number of death sentences were later reduced to transportation. Death sentences "differed" in their severity. The usual procedure was for the criminal to be taken to the gallows in a cart - the gallows being about a mile up the road to Andover opposite Gallows Field - after the execution had been carried out the family or friends were allowed to dispose of the body themselves. More serious offenses, including treason, incurred more 'colourful' deaths, such as the infamous hanging, drawing and quartering. Of those convicted in Winchester between 1783-1791 and transported to Australia, the commonest crimes included assaults and highway robberies, burglaries and the theft of animals. At nearly every quarter sessions and assizes, the theft of animals were reported and this occurred all over the county. Mostly it was the stealing of a fowl or two, perhaps even a sheep for food or a horse to sell, but there were also organised gangs who stole horses. Gangs often exchanging horses that had been stolen in one county, for those that had been stolen in another. Prisons were not necessary very large and only expected to hold prisoners until their cases came up at the next quarter sessions or assizes, then the judges did their job and the prisons became empty. Most of the sentences consisted of whipping, the stocks, fines or being sent to the bridewell for terms ranging from a few days to a year or two with hard labour. These could all be accomplished in a few days and even hangings were rarely delayed for more than a week. Prisoners were routinely ironed or even chained to the walls or floors to prevent them escaping. Many prisons were located in ancient castles, in rooms at the backs of inns or even in stables and barns. The situation for the prisoners became worse if they could not afford to send out for food or to pay for straw to sleep on - he might even die of starvation. A very small ration of bread were given but as prices began to rise steeply at various times over the century, prisoners received less to eat from the fixed sums of money which did not rise with the times. Even allowing for the poor rations and the overcrowding in dirty conditions, there was the ever-present risk of gaol fever. The lower part of the West Gate in Winchester, part underground, dark and dank, was for many years a prison and c.1776 it was noted that more than twenty prisoners had died in it of the gaol fever in one year, as well as the previous gaol keeper. It was not until 1805 that a new gaol was built at Winchester.[Hampshire Crime & Punishment]  
     
View of Sydney Cove, 25 May 1798
View of Sydney Cove, c.1797
Painting - Thomas Watling
Sydney Cove from Pitt's Row, c.1797
Sydney Cove from Pitt's Row, c.1797
Engraving - Thomas Watling
Sydney, from the east, c.1808
Sydney, from the east, c.1808
Image - John Eyre
  The 'Scarborough' was a transport ship of 430 tons, built at Scarborough in 1782. She formed part of the First Fleet, which commenced European settlement of Australia in 1788. Her master was John Marshall, and the surgeon was Dennis Considen. She left Portsmouth in 1787 and arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia, on 26 January 1788. On leaving Port Jackson on 5 May 1788, in company with the Lady Penrhyn, she traveled to China, returning to England on 15 June 1789. She returned to New South Wales with the notorious Second Fleet. In company with Surprize and Neptune she sailed from England with 253 male convicts on 19 January 1790. Her master was again John Marshall and the surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer. She arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 13 April 1790, and spent 16 days there, taking on provisions, and 8 male convicts from HMS Guardian, which had been wrecked after striking an iceberg. She and Neptune parted from Surprize in heavy weather and arrived at Port Jackson on 28 June, 160 days out from England. During the voyage 73 convicts died (28%) and 96 (37%) were sick when landed.[Wikipedia] The Second Fleet is the name of the second fleet of ships sent with settlers, convicts and supplies to colony at Sydney Cove in Port Jackson, Australia. The fleet comprised six ships: one Royal Navy escort, four convict ships, and a supply ship. The ships were intended to sail to Australia together, arriving at Sydney Cove in 1789. However the escort was disabled en route and failed to make the destination, and one convict ship which was delayed arrived two months after the other ships. Unlike the preceding First Fleet, where great efforts were taken to ensure the health of the convicts, the Second Fleet was contracted to private businesses who kept the convicts in horrific conditions. Upon arrival the sickly convicts were a drain on the already struggling colony. The Lady Juliana sailed before the other convict ships and is not always counted as a member of the Second Fleet. The storeship Justinian did not sail with the convict ships and arrived before them. HMS Guardian set out before the convict ships but struck ice after leaving the Cape of Good Hope, returned to southern Africa and was wrecked on the coast. The Surprize, Neptune and Scarborough were contracted from the firm "Camden, Calvert & King" who undertook to transport, clothe and feed the convicts for a flat fee of £17 7s. 6d per head, whether they landed alive or not. This firm had previously been involved in transporting slaves to North America. The only agents of the Crown in the crew were the naval agent, Lieutenant John Shapcote, and the Captain of the Guard, all other crew were supplied by the firm. The transports were "wet" ships with musty, dark prison areas that were wet due to water seepage. When passing through the tropics the stench aboard must have been indescribable, the nauseating smell of disease, of stagnant bilge water, rotting timbers and the foul reek of unsanitary conditions. The contractors supplied their own agent, the guards, the surgeon and the ship masters and crew. Most of the crew was hard drinking, brutal, illiterate and often recruited from taverns and other such places. The conditions aboard the convicts ships were gloomy, dank and unsanitary, and disease would take the heaviest toll of convicts, primary among these were scurvy, dysentery, typhoid fever and smallpox. But on the Second fleet starvation would take the highest & heaviest toll of the prisoners chained below the decks. They left England on 19 January 1790, with 1,006 convicts (928 male and 78 female) on board. They made only one stop on the way, at the Cape of Good Hope. Here 20 male convicts, survivors from Guardian, were taken on board. The three vessels made a faster trip than the First Fleet, arriving at Port Jackson in the last week of June 1790, three weeks after Lady Juliana, and one week after the storeship Justinian. The passage was relatively fast, but the mortality rate was the highest in the history of transportation to Australia. Of the 1,026 convicts embarked, 267 (256 men and 11 women) died during the voyage. On Neptune they were deliberately starved, kept heavily ironed, and frequently refused access to the deck. Scurvy could not be checked. On Scarborough, rations were not deliberately withheld, but a reported mutiny attempt led to the convicts being closely confined below decks. Captain William Hill, commander of the guard, afterwards wrote a strong criticism of the ships' masters stating that “the more they can withhold from the unhappy wretches the more provisions they have to dispose of at a foreign market, and the earlier in the voyage they die, the longer they can draw the deceased's allowance to themselves”. On arrival at Port Jackson, half naked convicts were lying without bedding, too ill to move. When the officials boarded the three transports they were confronted with the sight of convicts, most near naked, lying where they were chained. Most were emaciated with a lot dead in their chains or very close to death. The majority of the convicts were unable to speak, walk or even get to their feet. All were degraded, covered in their own body waste, dirt and infested with lice- and all exhibited the savage brutality of beatings or floggings as well as the visible signs of the starvation they had endured. Those unable to walk were slung over the side. All were covered with lice. At least 486 sick were landed (almost half of those embarked). The remainder were described as “lean and emaciated” and exhibiting “more horrid spectacles than had ever been witnessed in this country”. The majority of the convicts that hadn't died on the voyage were that ill that they were unable to walk. A small town of tents was set up at the landing place to act as a temporary hospital. The colony, barely two years old and on the verge of starvation, was forced to care for 759 starved, abused and near to death individuals. Among the arrivals on the Second Fleet were D'Arcy Wentworth and his convict mistress Catherine Crowley, on Neptune, and John Macarthur, then a young lieutenant in the New South Wales Corps, and his wife Elizabeth, on Scarborough. When news of the horrors of the Second Fleet reached England, both public and official opinion was shocked. An enquiry was held but no attempt was made to arrest Donald Traill, master of Neptune and described as a demented sadist, or bring a public prosecution against him, the other masters, or the firm of contractors. They had already been contracted by the government to prepare the Third Fleet for sailing to Port Jackson in 1791. Traill and his Chief Mate William Ellerington were privately prosecuted for the murder of an un-named convict, seaman Andrew Anderson and John Joseph, cook. But, after a trial lasting three hours before Sir James Marriott in the Admiralty Court, the jury acquitted both men on all charges "without troubling the Judge to sum up the evidence".[Wikipedia, The Convict Death Fleet]  
     
St Phillip's, Sydney, 1848
St Phillip's, Sydney, 1848
Engraving - Joseph Fowles
Parramatta Female Factory, c.1826
Parramatta Female Factory, c.1826
Painting - Augustus Earle
Glebe, Sydney, c.1870
Glebe, Sydney, c.1870
Photograph - Walter Chaffer
  St Philips. The first chaplain in Australia, Rev Richard Johnson, arrived with the First Fleet. For the first five years church services in the colony were held in the open air or in temporary buildings around Sydney Cove. The first church was built of wattle and daub in 1793 at what is now the corner of Bligh and Hunter Streets, to costs of construction were paid for by Johnson. The church was a T-shaped building, with a thatched roof and an earthen floor, it could seat 500. During the week it served as a schoolhouse where Johnson and his wife, Mary, taught between 150 and 200 children. It was burnt down in 1798. The same year work began on building a replacement stone church, located on a rise of land that was to become known as Church Hill, across the road from the present building. In 1800 the foundation stone was laid for what was to become the first St Philip's. A brick store on George Street, which had been completed in 1798 was pressed into service as a temporary church until the stone St Philip's and in 1800 the newly built Orphan School was used for church services until January 1808, after which there was no Church of England minister in the colony until St Philip's opened in August 1809. The first part of St. Philip's to be built was the clock tower, which was of brick and finished in 1797; this however having fallen in June, 1806, was rebuilt of stone in the same year. The church itself was commenced in 1800, but not ready for use until 1809, when the Rev. W. Cowper officiated therein for the first time. It was completed about a year afterwards, and a handsome Altar Service of silver presented to it by His Majesty King George III. 'Old' St Philip's served Sydney from this date until 1856 when the present church was consecrated. In 1802 Australia 's first two parishes were proclaimed, St Philip's (Sydney) and St John's (Parramatta). The first two incumbents to minister to the people from the Church were William Cooper, followed by his son William Macquarie Cooper, who served the parish for a total of 60 years.[Sydney Architecture, Places of Worship, Sydney in 1848] Limerick County Gaol. Still in use as a prison, today known as Limerick Prison. Located on Mulgrave Street, Limerick, it is a medium security prison, with an official capacity of 290 male beds and 20 female beds. During 2009 the prison averaged 298 male prisioners and 22 female prisioners. The present gaol was built between 1815 and 1821, but has undergone extensive renovation since then. Many of the old wings have been replaced. The original female section of the prison is generally not used except in cases of severe overcrowding. The present building was designed by James Pain. In 1807 the following description was given of the earlier gaol (presumably the one Bridget was an inmate):
"One building contains the prisoners for the County and City of Limerick. I had recommended to the Local Inspectors the necessity for an insulating wall, to protect the court walls of this Prison, in the angles of which centinels should be placed. Had this advice been taken, the frequent escapes made since could not have happened. The Lodge, intended by the Architect for a Turnkey, is occupied by a military guard; the centinel sometimes demands money for admitting persons to see their friends: I once experienced this impropriety, and complained to the Commanding Officer; it was then prohibited, but I am told it has been sometimes since practised. The Gaol is kept clean. The imprisoned Debtors in this County and City did not get the County allowance of bread as Felons do. At my visit in October last, I remonstrated with the Inspectors on the severity of this distinction, and prevailed on the County Inspector to distribute to six very poor Debtors, whose friends lived at a considerable distance from town. This kind practice he has continued. The Inspector over the City Prisoners, gave sensible reasons for not complying with my desire, but said a charitable society, established in Limerick, took the poor Debtors into their care, compounded their debts, and relieved them by weekly donations of money. 141 Prisoners were tried at both Assizes; 18 were convicted, 5 capitally, 4 of whom were executed. – 43 Crown Prisoners and 16 Debtors were in custody on 1st January 1808."
At the time there were two gaols in Limerick - the County Gaol for people who were committed for crimes in the county outside Limerick city and the City Gaol for people committed for crimes in the city. The two were merged when the new gaol was built in the 1810s.[Wikipedia, Architects of the Limerick Athenaeum, State of the Prisons of Ireland for 1807, Ire-Limerick Archives] The Old Sydney Gaol was bounded by George, Essex and Harrington Streets. In 1796 Governor Hunter ordered the construction of Sydney's first formal gaol. Built of logs on a stone footing with a thatched roof on the corner of what would become George & Essex Streets, the gaol was surrounded by a high fence and also included a brick debtors prison. The gaol opened in 1797 and only survived 2 years, burning down in 1799. Construction then began on a replacement stone gaol, which was completed by the following year. In 1823 the following description was given of the gaol:
"The Sydney Gaol is situated in one of the principal streets called George Street and upon the declivity of a rugged and rocky hill that overlooks the harbour of Sydney Cove. The entrance from the street is through a courtyard 97 by 34 feet, in which there are two small lodges, one for the gaoler's office and the other for the confinement of misdemeanants. On one side of the courtyard is a place of deposit for wood and coals, and a house for the under gaoler; and at the other is a separate courtyard 71 feet by 20, with a wooden building at the upper end, containing two small rooms for the separate confinement of female prisoners. The principal building stands on a raised terrace, to which there is a steep and inconvenient stair case, and it is divided by a passage of 10 feet into two apartments that measure 32 feet by 22. In these rooms there are fire-places and raised wooden platforms upon which the prisoners sleep. The walls of these rooms, as well as the wooden platforms and the floors, have been much damaged, although they have been frequently repaired. The yard behind the gaol is 16 5 feet in 1ength by 79 in breadth, is well flagged and contains a pump that affords a good supply of water; at the upper end is the building that is appropriated to the debtors containing two rooms, one of which is 28 feet by 12 and divided into two bedrooms, and the other is 28 feet by 17; on the same side, and in front of the yard, two rooms have been lately appropriated for the women, each 27 feet by 18, and in which two fireplaces have been constructed there are three cells at each end of the principal building for the confinement of prisoners under sentence of death, or condemned to solitary confinement."
The whole site was enclosed by a perimeter wall. In 1835 a report noted the 'insecure and dilapidated state of the present buildings'. As a result of overcrowding the gaol afforded no proper facilities for exercise or the segregation of different classes of prisoners. At one time in 1834 there were 326 prisoners, including 62 females and eight children confined in one small room alone. The report recommended that a new gaol be constructed, which was finally opened in 1841 & the prisioners remaining at the old gaol were then moved to the new gaol at Darlinghurst. By 1850 the old gaol had been demolished and the site was then a vacant block of land.[Old Sydney Gaol Excavation - Pat Burritt] Parramatta Female Factory. The 'Female Factory' was the destination of all convict women transported to the colony who had not been assigned as servants. Australia's first Female Factory, the Factory above the Gaol was located in what is now Prince Alfred Park, Parramatta, New South Wales. It was a simple log walled and thatched roof construction built in 1796 and used primarily as a place of confinement for convict re-offenders. The original construction burnt down and was replaced with a two storey stone building in 1802. This building was also damaged in a fire and again rebuilt in 1804 during Governor King's administration. The upper floor of the gaol was used as a place of confinement for delinquents and a house of industry for female convicts known as the Factory above the Gaol and later the Female Factory. Within a decade there was considerable pressure on the authorities to deal with increasing numbers of female convicts who could not be adequately accommodated at the Factory but it was not until the arrival of Governor Lachlan Macquarie that a solution was found. Macquarie selected a 4-acre site on the opposite bank of the Parramatta River from the Governor's Domain to build a new Factory and issued instructions to convict architect Francis Greenway to design a building that would accommodate 300 women. The Factory was built using convict labour from locally quarried sandstone and was completed in 1821 at the cost of 4778 pounds. The walls of the main building ranged from 2' 6" at the foundation to 20" at the apex of its three storeys. It had an oak shingled roof, floors of 6" paving or stringbark with barred leadlight windows in the basement and lead glazed windows on the upper floors. The first floor was used for meals with the top two floors for sleeping. The porter, deputy superintendent, superintendent and matron were provided separate accommodation on the site. The Factory was often referred to as the Nunnery and served as a refuge, a gaol, an asylum, a home for the infirm, a labour exchange, a marriage bureau, a hospital and a manufactory. In 1821 Macquarie wrote describing the Factory:
"A Large Commodious handsome stone Built Barrack and Factory, three Stories high, with Wings of one Story each for the accomodation and residence of 300 Female Convicts, with all requisite Out-offices including Carding, Weaving and Loom Rooms, Work-Shops, Stores for Wool, Flax etc. etc.; Quarters for the Superintendant, and also a large Kitchen Garden for the use of the Female Convicts, and Bleaching Ground for Bleaching the Cloth and Linen Manufactured; the whole of the Buildings and said Grounds, consisting of about Four acres, being enclosed with a high Stone Wall and Moat or Wet Ditch."
Originally intended as a place of refuge for the women and children of the NSW colony, within a decade it became more like a conventional prison. In 1825 the editor of the Sydney Gazette wrote the following about the 'factory':
"The female prisoners in the Factory at Parramatta, are, by the present regulations, divided into three classes. The second and third of these are penal, and into one of which, as the case may be, are sent all those assigned servants who conduct themselves in any wise improperly in their respective employments: the first class nevertheless being attainable by those whose conduct evidences a dispostion towards amendment. The arrangements are as follows: First Clas